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Friday
Oct042019

S.C. Crops Threatened by Long Drought

CLEMSON — More than half of South Carolina is in a moderate to severe drought and another 26 percent is abnormally dry, according to the U.S. Drought Monitor, and Clemson University researchers and Cooperative Extension Service agents say it is affecting crop yields.

Charles Davis, Extension row crops agent in Calhoun County, said hot, dry weather is plaguing late-season crops, such as peanuts. A total of 65,000 acres of peanuts were planted in South Carolina this year and the drought slowed maturation of the crop.

“Peanuts were shut down unless the crops were irrigated,” Davis said. “Digging conditions on tight soils have made the peanut harvest difficult for peanut producers.”

Dry fields have ramped up the state’s cotton harvest. The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Agricultural Statistics Service reports about 300,000 acres of cotton were planted in South Carolina. About 20 percent of the state’s cotton crop and 47 percent of the state’s peanut crop had been harvested as of Sept. 29. The report shows adequate soil moisture in topsoil at just 15 percent, with 23 percent adequate soil moisture for subsoil.

Ben Fallen, soybean program leader at Clemson’s Pee Dee Research and Education Center in Florence, said the extent of which crops are affected depends on where they are located.

“Rainfall has been very isolated this summer which has had a big impact on crops,” Fallen said. “Soybeans are doing good, but we really need some rain to finish out the crop. We are in the pod-filling stage and now we need the rain more than ever. Cotton had a rough season early on then a good August, at least in the Pee Dee area. Then the weather was perfect for harvest.”

David Gunter, Clemson Extension feed grain specialist at the Edisto Research and Education Center in Blackville, said the 2019 season “…can’t end soon enough.”

South Carolina corn also is suffering.

“The season is over and the producers are taking another hit and it’s getting harder and harder for them to come back,” he said.

Gunter said moisture also is needed for small grains, such as wheat, rye, oats and barley, to seed.

“None of these will germinate without some rain and not just a one-time event,” he said. “We need normal rain, whatever that is.”

“If the drought extends into the fall and winter without significant rainfall across South Carolina, then it is likely to become more of an exceptional drought,” said Thomas Walker of the S.C. Water Resources Center. “Fall is the time of year when South Carolina generally has experienced the most rainfall, which helps replenish rivers, reservoirs and aquifers.”

Effects of the drought depend on which water-use sectors and which parts of the state are being considered. Reservoir levels are down across the state, but not to the levels of concern seen in past significant droughts. Some localized effects are seen in some stream and river systems. Groundwater is used in times of drought to make up for rainfall shortages. Currently, some groundwater levels are below normal or low in parts of the state. But it’s not all bad.

Rain and cooler temperatures are needed to pull South Carolina out of the drought.

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